Roots of Gum Disease: Understanding the Causes of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal or gum disease is a common progressive dental problem next to tooth decay that can negatively impact your oral health. Swollen, red, bleeding gums and compromised bone health can be debilitating and eventually end up in tooth loss. 

Knowing the root cause of periodontal disease can help the dentist and their team at the Oshawa dentist office to design an appropriate treatment plan that can help restore oral health and appearance.  

Periodontal disease involves the gradual deterioration of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, including the gums and jawbone. It typically starts as gum inflammation, known as gingivitis. This is characterized by symptoms like redness, swelling, and bleeding gums. Without intervention, it can advance to periodontitis, where the damage extends to the underlying jawbone, leading to tooth mobility and eventual loss.

Exploring the most prevalent causes of periodontal disease 

The following are some of the possible causes of periodontal disease: 

Genetic factors: People with a genetic predisposition (if a family member suffers from it) are six times more likely to develop periodontal disease. 

Poor oral hygiene: Lack of good oral habits can cause an increase in bacterial infiltration and plaque formation. This leads to the secretion of harmful toxins and acids that damage your teeth and surrounding structures. 

Tobacco use in the form of smoking: Smokers are more prone to gingival inflammation and bone loss. This is because smoking leads to poor healing and recovery rates. 

Hormonal changes: Hormonal imbalance, as seen during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause, can wreak havoc on your oral health due to gum inflammation. 

Chronic stress: Stress greatly lowers the ability of your immune system to fight off disease. Your body’s defense mechanism is compromised, which causes gum disease. 

Improper diet: A poorly balanced diet or malnutrition can lead to nutritional deficiencies that can also play a vital role in causing gum disease due to impaired healing ability.  

Underlying health conditions: Certain health conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, heart disease, or respiratory disease can increase your risk of periodontal disease. This is mostly attributed to poor healing and recovery rates. 

Certain medications: Drugs such as antihypertensives, oral contraceptive pills, steroids, antihypertensives, and antidepressants can negatively affect the overall health of the teeth and gums. They facilitate bacterial colonization and cause gingival swelling.

Bruxism: Abnormal grinding or clenching of teeth is believed to damage the supporting tissue surrounding the teeth due to extreme forces exerted.  

Knowing the cause of the periodontal disease is crucial to establish a precise treatment plan. Since only symptomatic relief cannot resolve your dental issues. Timely dental care can prevent the onset, progression, and recurrence of periodontal disease. 

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